Mt. Judea's first school was opened in either the late 1850's or early 1860's. It was discontinued for a time during the Civil War and then reopened in the late 1860's. Land for the Mt. Judea School was patented from the federal government by Ephraim Greenhaw on March 7, 1860, and the first trustee was his son, Frank M. Greenhaw, who served as trustee for 47 years. The school was originally located close to where the old post office was located. It was originally a log building, but it later had a boxed-in room added to the south end of the building. One of the first known teachers during this time was E.A. Ruble in 1885.
In 1897 a new building was built close to where the current high school is located, and the school was moved to the new location. The building was a two-room frame building, and the upstairs was used for lodge meetings. Later a side room was added. In 1912 the first known administrator, A.B. Arbaugh, served as principal.
The rock high school building was started in 1935 and finished in 1936 by the WPA. It was the second WPA project that contained President Franklin D Roosevelt's initials. The building cost $6,000. The two story building was also torn down at this time, and Mt. Judea began teaching high school courses. The first graduates (twins Nielda and Nelda Kent) occurred in 1937.
In the early 1940's, many small schools such as Atkinson, Lick Creek, Log Hall, Mt. Home, Ben's Branch, Bass, Juanita, Dry Creek, Mt. Hecla, Holt, Happy Home, White House, Mt. Hersey, and Carver were consolidated with Mt. Judea.
The current white wooden building consisting of 4 rooms and a basement, which became the first cafeteria, was built in the late 1940's-early 1950's.
Basketball games had previously been played on a dirt court; however, in 1951-52, land located across Highway 123 was purchased from Loyd Hefley and Grover Greenhaw, and the first gymnasium was built. In 1952-53, with Herbert Edwards as coach, the first games were played in the gym. Mt. Judea hosted the first Newton County Tournament that year.
In the early 1960's, the high school building, as well as a bus garage, was built. Then, in 1968, land was purchased from Loyd and Kenneth Hefley, and a new elementary building was started. Dressing rooms and indoor toilets for the gymnasium were also added in 1968.
A new lunchroom was built in 1970, and then in 1977-78, new office space was built and more rooms were made available by connecting the high school building and the rock building.
In 1980, the lower elementary building and an addition to the gymnasium for bathrooms, dressing rooms, and a concession stand were built.
The new gymnasium complex, complete with cafetorium, agriculture shop/classroom, and bus garage, became part of the school campus in 2001.
In 2004-05, the Mt. Judea School District and the Deer School District joined to form the current Deer/Mt. Judea School District.